Whether you have been around guns all your life or have never picked up a firearm before, being a first-time gun owner is an exciting milestone in your life. But as a first-time gun owner, there are a lot of things you need to learn to make the most out of this exciting time and to continue enjoying being a gun owner for years to come. To assist you, Liberty Safe has compiled some tips for first-time gun owners.
Do Your Homework Before Going to the Gun Shop
Being in a gun shop can be like being a kid in a candy shop between all the different types of firearms and accessories that are on display. Before going to the gun shop to purchase your first gun, you should already have a pretty good idea of what type of firearm you want to purchase.
Usually, the type of gun you choose depends on what you plan to use it for, like:
Protecting your home and familyGoing huntingGoing target shooting at an indoor or outdoor rangeGoing skeet shooingStarting a gun collection as an investment or for show purposes
Types of Firearms Available
Knowing what you plan to use the gun for will give you a starting point at the gun store. It helps the staff steer you in the right direction by looking at categories of firearms that are recommended for certain uses, such as:
Handguns/Pistols. These are smaller firearms that have shorter barrels. They have great accuracy due do the rifling within its thick barrel that is designed to withstand a lot of pressure. Because these guns are smaller than other types of guns, they are easier to carry and can be also shot with one hand if needed. They are great for protection, self-defense, and range shooting.Shotguns. These guns have long barrels that have a smooth bore instead of rifling that causes the ammunition to spin. A shotgun’s barrel is thinner than that of a handgun, so it does not handle as much pressure. These firearms are best for skeet shooting and bird hunting.Rifles. If you need a firearm for long-range hunting, a rifle is the one best designed to get the job done. It has a long, rifled barrel with thick walls that can withstand high pressures. Unlike a shotgun, a rifle is more accurate and able to fire bullets for longer distances. This makes a rifle great for both hunting and sport shooting.Semi-Automatic Rifles. A semi-automatic rifle is a type of rifle that self-loads and repeats to automatically cycle a new round after each shot. Unlike a fully automatic firearm, you do need to manually release the rifle’s trigger and reset the sear and hammer before you can pull the trigger to fire another shot.
Research the Gun Laws in Your State
As a first-time gun buyer, you should first research the gun laws that apply to your state and municipality. What may be legal in one state may not be legal in the next. Even if you are just purchasing a gun to protect your home and family, you do not want to risk breaking any gun laws that could prevent you from purchasing your gun now or potentially owning a gun in the future.
In the United States, each state is left to decide whether they will issue carry permits. There are two ways guns are carried, open carry and concealed carry. Some states allow open carry with a permit, without a permit, or not at all.
Conceal carry laws are also different from state to state and fall into one of three types:
Constitutional carry/unrestricted carry where you do not need a permit. As of February 12, 2021, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, Idaho, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Mississippi, Missouri, New Hampshire, North Dakota (residents only; concealed carry only), Oklahoma, South Dakota, Utah (effective May 5, 2021), Vermont, West Virginia and Wyoming (residents only) do not require a permit to carry a loaded concealed firearm for any person of age who is not prohibited from owning a firearm.Shall issue where you need to meet your state’s legal requirements before you can receive the required permit.May issue where a permit is required, but it is very difficult to qualify for the permit.
There are a few good ways to learn more about the gun laws in your state or town. You could go online and look up the gun laws that apply to your state and municipality. A reputable gun dealer will also be able to tell you what you need to do to legally purchase a gun and what the laws and restrictions are for your state and municipality.
Can You Legally Buy a Gun?
While the Second Amendment gives U.S. citizens the right to bear arms, not all citizens are legally allowed to own firearms. The FBI has access to a great deal of data with its databases that it uses to run background checks on potential gun buyers.
To avoid embarrassment when trying to purchase your first gun, please consider these reasons that may make you ineligible purchase one:
Previously being convicted of a serious crime or misdemeanorBeing dishonorably discharged from the militaryBeing indicted for a serious crime, but not yet convictedBeing a fugitive from justiceProhibited by state because of being known as an abuser of drugs or alcoholBeing subject to a restraining order because of threatening behavior, such as domestic violenceHaving been involuntarily committed to a mental institution
If you have concerns as to whether you are eligible to purchase a gun, speak to the staff at the gun store before applying for your gun permit.
Going to the Gun Shop
Once you have a good idea of what type of gun you want to buy and have some idea of what you can and cannot do with it in your state, you are ready to go gun shopping. However, you may still have a few questions. No problem, most good gun shops employ experienced and knowledgeable employees who should be happy to answer any questions you might still have as a first-time gun buyer. If they do not want to be bothered with questions, take your business elsewhere, because there are plenty of shops that would love to have your business.
Feel free to ask questions about the different guns you may be interested in. Don’t forget to ask what the pros and cons are of each and what permits, or specialty permits, you may need to apply for. Remember, you do not have to buy your gun at the first shop you go to. You can shop around to see if you can find a better price. You may also want to go to the gun range and rent the different types of firearms you are interested in before you invest in your own.
Try Before You Buy
You wouldn’t invest in a car without test driving it first, right? The same is true for buying your first gun. If you can rent one and try it out at a firing range, that’s great. But at a minimum, you should at least go through a few steps to determine whether the gun you are considering is right for you.
See how the gun feels in your hand.Compare the way the gun feels to other guns.Is the gun too light or heavy in your hand?Grasp the gun firmly around its grip.Keep your finger off the trigger and outside the trigger guard.See if you can easily maneuver the gun’s safety on and off.
You want to make sure that the gun is not too heavy or too big for your hand because you could have problems controlling it. You also want to be able to quickly turn the safety off and on so that you do not waste time when you need to take a shot fast.
Also consider what type of trigger action the firearm has because this will determine how the gun will load, lock, fire, extract, and eject when you pull its trigger. Common trigger actions include:
Single actionDouble action OnlyDouble action/single actionRepeating actionsBolt actionLever actionPump actionSemi-automaticAutomatic
What Will You Need to Purchase a Firearm?
Now that we have reviewed the nitty-gritty of what you should accomplish before purchasing your first firearm, let’s discuss what you will need to actually purchase it. In almost every state, you will need to provide a valid photo ID, such as your driver’s license or a current government-issued ID card, like a military ID.
In all states, you are required to fill out and sign an ATF Form 4473 Firearms Transaction Form. This form is where you will attest that you are legally eligible to purchase a gun and you are required by law to fill it out truthfully. Why? Because not only is the gun dealer going to review your information, but they are also required to submit your information to the FBI to be run through its three databases to do a background check. Some dealers may run your background check on the spot and receive an immediate response. The FBI may approve the gun sale, deny the gun sale, or delay the gun sale.
In some circumstances, the FBI may delay a yes or no because it needs additional information to make a final determination. The FBI then enlists the help of its Criminal Justice Information Services Division, who will have an examiner contact local law enforcement and other agencies to find that additional information. If the FBI does not issue a decision within three days, this is called a default proceed, and the licensed dealer may sell the firearm to the applicant.
After the ATF 4473 form has been approved, you have 30 days to finalize the purchase of your firearm. If you do not complete your purchase during that time, you will need to file another form. An approved form can only be used once for one transaction. If you want to purchase another firearm after your first purchase, even within those 30 days, you will need to file another form.
Best Safety Practices for After Purchasing Your First Firearm
As a first-time gun owner, you must also accept the responsibility of practicing gun safety. If you don’t, you put yourself, your family, and members of your community at risk.
Learn How to Use Your New Gun
You should get familiar with your gun and learn how to use it properly. Some gun stores and firing ranges offer classes on how to handle a firearm. In California, you must actually prove that you know how to safely handle a firearm before you can purchase it.
Practice Using Your Firearm
Practice makes perfect, so you are going to want to practice using your new firearm. The more you use it, the more comfortable you will be with shooting it. Make it a habit to go to your local firing range to practice often.
Securing and Storing Your Firearm
When you purchase a firearm, you are making an investment. Therefore, you want to do what you can to protect your investment. Environmental factors, like humidity, dust, and oil from your hands, can quickly cause gunmetal to rust, corrode, or tarnish. So, you will want to keep it clean and clean it every time you use your firearm. If it gets wet while outdoors, you should dry it off immediately.
You also will want to keep your firearm safe from theft or unauthorized access by children or individuals that have no business being anywhere near a gun. The best way to do this is by keeping your new firearm secured in a gun safe or gun vault.
Visit your local Liberty Safe dealer to see all your options for secure firearm storage.
Firearm Safety – 10 Rules of Safe Gun Handling
1. Always Keep the Muzzle Pointed in a Safe Direction
This is the most basic safety rule. If everyone handled a firearm so carefully that the muzzle never pointed at something they didn’t intend to shoot, there would be virtually no firearms accidents. It’s as simple as that, and it’s up to you.
Never point your gun at anything you do not intend to shoot. This is particularly important when loading or unloading a firearm. In the event of an accidental discharge, no injury can occur as long as the muzzle is pointing in a safe direction.
A safe direction means a direction in which a bullet cannot possibly strike anyone, taking into account possible ricochets and the fact that bullets can penetrate walls and ceilings. The safe direction may be “up” on some occasions or “down” on others, but never at anyone or anything not intended as a target. Even when “dry firing” with an unloaded gun, you should never point the gun at an unsafe target.
Make it a habit to know exactly where the muzzle of your gun is pointing at all times, and be sure that you are in control of the direction in which the muzzle is pointing, even if you fall or stumble. This is your responsibility, and only you can control it.
2. Firearms Should Be Unloaded When Not Actually in Use
Firearms should be loaded only when you are in the field or on the target range or shooting area, ready to shoot. When not in use, firearms and ammunition should be secured in a safe place, separate from each other. It is your responsibility to prevent children and unauthorized adults from gaining access to firearms or ammunition.
Unload your gun as soon as you are finished. A loaded gun has no place in or near a car, truck or building. Unload your gun immediately when you have finished shooting, well before you bring it into a car, camp or home.
Whenever you handle a firearm or hand it to someone, always open the action immediately, and visually check the chamber, receiver and magazine to be certain they do not contain any ammunition. Always keep actions open when not in use. Never assume a gun is unloaded — check for yourself! This is considered a mark of an experienced gun handler!
Never cross a fence, climb a tree or perform any awkward action with a loaded gun. While in the field, there will be times when common sense and the basic rules of firearms safety will require you to unload your gun for maximum safety. Never pull or push a loaded firearm toward yourself or another person. There is never any excuse to carry a loaded gun in a scabbard, a holster not being worn or a gun case. When in doubt, unload your gun!
3. Don’t Rely on Your Gun’s “Safety”
Treat every gun as though it can fire at any time. The “safety” on any gun is a mechanical device which, like any such device, can become inoperable at the worst possible time. Besides, by mistake, the safety may be “off” when you think it is “on.” The safety serves as a supplement to proper gun handling but cannot possibly serve as a substitute for common sense. You should never handle a gun carelessly and assume that the gun won’t fire just because the “safety is on.”
Never touch the trigger on a firearm until you actually intend to shoot. Keep your fingers away from the trigger while loading or unloading. Never pull the trigger on any firearm with the safety on the “safe” position or anywhere in between “safe” and “fire.” It is possible that the gun can fire at any time, or even later when you release the safety, without you ever touching the trigger again.
Never place the safety in between positions, since half-safe is unsafe. Keep the safety “on” until you are absolutely ready to fire.
Regardless of the position of the safety, any blow or jar strong enough to actuate the firing mechanism of a gun can cause it to fire. This can happen even if the trigger is not touched, such as when a gun is dropped. Never rest a loaded gun against any object because there is always the possibility that it will be jarred or slide from its position and fall with sufficient force to discharge. The only time you can be absolutely certain that a gun cannot fire is when the action is open and it is completely empty. Again, never rely on your gun’s safety. You and the safe gun handling procedures you have learned are your gun’s primary safeties.
4. Be Sure of Your Target and What’s Beyond It
No one can call a shot back. Once a gun fires, you have given up all control over where the shot will go or what it will strike. Don’t shoot unless you know exactly what your shot is going to strike. Be sure that your bullet will not injure anyone or anything beyond your target. Firing at a movement or a noise without being absolutely certain of what you are shooting at constitutes disregard for the safety of others. No target is so important that you cannot take the time before you pull the trigger to be absolutely certain of your target and where your shot will stop.
Be aware that even a 22 short bullet can travel over 1 1/4 miles and a high velocity cartridge, such as a 30-06, can send its bullet more than 3 miles. Shotgun pellets can travel 500 yards, and shotgun slugs have a range of over half a mile.
You should keep in mind how far a bullet will travel if it misses your intended target or ricochets in another direction.
5. Use Correct Ammunition
You must assume the serious responsibility of using only the correct ammunition for your firearm. Read and heed all warnings, including those that appear in the gun’s instruction manual and on the ammunition boxes.
Using improper or incorrect ammunition can destroy a gun and cause serious personal injury. It only takes one cartridge of improper caliber or gauge to wreck your gun, and only a second to check each one as you load it. Be absolutely certain that the ammunition you are using matches the specifications that are contained within the gun’s instruction manual and the manufacturer’s markings on the firearm.
Firearms are designed, manufactured and proof tested to standards based upon those of factory loaded ammunition. Handloaded or reloaded ammunition deviating from pressures generated by factory loads or from component recommendations specified in reputable handloading manuals can be dangerous, and can cause severe damage to guns and serious injury to the shooter. Do not use improper reloads or ammunition made of unknown components.
Ammunition that has become very wet or has been submerged in water should be discarded in a safe manner. Do not spray oil or solvents on ammunition or place ammunition in excessively lubricated firearms. Poor ignition, unsatisfactory performance or damage to your firearm and harm to yourself or others could result from using such ammunition.
Form the habit of examining every cartridge you put into your gun. Never use damaged or substandard ammunition — the money you save is not worth the risk of possible injury or a ruined gun.
6. If Your Gun Fails to Fire When the Trigger is Pulled, Handle with Care!
Occasionally, a cartridge may not fire when the trigger is pulled. If this occurs, keep the muzzle pointed in a safe direction. Keep your face away from the breech. Then, carefully open the action, unload the firearm and dispose of the cartridge in a safe way.
Any time there is a cartridge in the chamber, your gun is loaded and ready to fire even if you’ve tried to shoot and it did not go off. It could go off at any time, so you must always remember Rule #1 and watch that muzzle!
Discharging firearms in poorly ventilated areas, cleaning firearms or handling ammunition may result in exposure to lead and other substances known to cause birth defects, reproductive harm and other serious physical injury. Have adequate ventilation at all times. Wash hands thoroughly after exposure.
7. Always Wear Eye and Ear Protection When Shooting
All shooters should wear protective shooting glasses and some form of hearing protectors while shooting. Exposure to shooting noise can damage hearing, and adequate vision protection is essential. Shooting glasses guard against twigs, falling shot, clay target chips and the rare ruptured case or firearm malfunction. Wearing eye protection when disassembling and cleaning any gun will also help prevent the possibility of springs, spring tension parts, solvents or other agents from contacting your eyes. There is a wide variety of eye and ear protectors available. No target shooter, plinker or hunter should ever be without them.
Most rules of shooting safety are intended to protect you and others around you, but this rule is for your protection alone. Furthermore, having your hearing and eyes protected will make your shooting easier and will help improve your enjoyment of the shooting sports.
8. Be Sure the Barrel is Clear of Obstructions Before Shooting
Before you load your firearm, open the action and be certain that no ammunition is in the chamber or magazine. Be sure the barrel is clear of any obstruction. Even a small bit of mud, snow, excess lubricating oil or grease in the bore can cause dangerously increased pressures, causing the barrel to bulge or even burst on firing, which can cause injury to the shooter and bystanders. Make it a habit to clean the bore and check for obstructions with a cleaning rod immediately before you shoot it. If the noise or recoil on firing seems weak or doesn’t seem quite “right,” cease firing immediately and be sure to check that no obstruction or projectile has become lodged in the barrel.
Placing a smaller gauge or caliber cartridge into a gun (such as a 20-gauge shell in a 12-gauge shotgun) can result in the smaller cartridge falling into the barrel and acting as a bore obstruction when a cartridge of proper size is fired. This can cause a burst barrel or worse. This is really a case where “haste makes waste.” You can easily avoid this type of accident by paying close attention to each cartridge you insert into your firearm.
9. Don’t Alter or Modify Your Gun, and Have Guns Serviced Regularly
Firearms are complicated mechanisms that are designed by experts to function properly in their original condition. Any alteration or change made to a firearm after manufacture can make the gun dangerous and will usually void any factory warranties. Do not jeopardize your safety or the safety of others by altering the trigger, safety or other mechanism of any firearm or allowing unqualified persons to repair or modify a gun. You’ll usually ruin an expensive gun. Don’t do it!
Your gun is a mechanical device that will not last forever and is subject to wear. As such, it requires periodic inspection, adjustment and service. Check with the manufacturer of your firearm for recommended servicing.
10. Learn the Mechanical and Handling Characteristics of the Firearm You are Using
Not all firearms are the same. The method of carrying and handling firearms varies in accordance with the mechanical characteristics of each gun. Since guns can be so different, never handle any firearm without first having thoroughly familiarized yourself with the particular type of firearm you are using, the safe gun handling rules for loading, unloading, carrying and handling that firearm, and the rules of safe gun handling in general.
For example, many handgun manufacturers recommend that their handguns always be carried with the hammer down on an empty chamber. This is particularly true for older single-action revolvers, but applies equally to some double-action revolvers or semiautomatic pistols. You should always read and refer to the instruction manual you received with your gun, or if you have misplaced the manual, simply contact the manufacturer for a free copy.
Having a gun in your possession is a full-time job. You cannot guess; you cannot forget. You must know how to use, handle and store your firearm safely. Do not use any firearm without having a complete understanding of its particular characteristics and safe use. There is no such thing as a foolproof gun.
Hunting and target shooting are among the safest of all sports. This list is intended to help you make them even safer by emphasizing the basics of safe gun handling and storage and by reminding you that you are the key to firearms safety.
You can help meet this responsibility by enrolling in hunter safety or shooting safety courses. You must constantly stress safety when handling firearms, especially to children and non-shooters. Beginners, in particular, must be closely supervised when handling firearms with which they may not be acquainted.
Don’t be timid when it comes to gun safety. If you observe anyone violating any safety precautions, you have an obligation to insist on safer handling practices, such as those on this site.
Follow the safety procedures outlined here, develop safe shooting habits, and remember, firearms safety is up to you.